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What Was the Cause of Religious Disagreements in England

After the Peasants` War, a second, more determined attempt was made at Münster in Westphalia (1532-1535) to establish a theocracy. Here, a group of prominent citizens, including the Lutheran pastor Bernhard Rothmann, Jan Matthys, and Jan Bockelson (“Johannes von Leiden”), had little difficulty in taking possession of the city on January 5, 1534. Matthys identified Münster as the “New Jerusalem,” and preparations were made not only to preserve what had been won, but also to achieve the conquest of the world of Münster. [Citation needed] Maastricht was a great disaster for the Protestant cause and the Dutch began to turn against William of Orange. After several unsuccessful attempts, Wilhelm was assassinated in 1584 and died penniless. Spain had gained the upper hand on land, but beggars still controlled the sea. Queen Elizabeth of England began to help the northern provinces and sent troops there in 1585. While Philip Farnese wasted ridiculous and useless battles against England and France, Spain was too thin. The Spanish Armada suffered a defeat against the English in 1588 and the situation in the Netherlands became increasingly difficult to manage. Henry VIII`s divorce led to the creation of a national church, which was supported by parliament. After eleven years of religious unrest after the king`s death, Anglicanism was founded by Elizabeth I in 1559.

The wars listed were the heaviest losses; the remaining religious conflicts in Europe lasted only a few years, a year or less and/or were much less violent. The Huguenot uprisings were perhaps the most damaging conflict after the German Peasants` War and may have claimed the lives of up to 100,000 people. The New England colonies were often called “Biblical Commonwealths” because they sought to be guided by the Scriptures to govern all aspects of their citizens` lives. Scripture has been cited as an authority over many criminal laws. Here are the two Bibles used in seventeenth-century New England and a seventeenth-century Massachusetts code of law that quotes the Scriptures. During Elizabeth`s reign, the clergy and people gradually became Protestants: competent clergy were trained at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, while itinerant preachers roamed the country. Many catechisms were published and bible reading was encouraged – the most widely used version was the Geneva Bible, which was popular for its notes and commentaries. In addition to radical reform within the Church of England, two important movements developed within the Church of England: the first was the Oxford movement, which advocated rapprochement with the Catholic Church, and the second was religious liberalism. However, this evangelical movement, active in the fields of missionary and social work, was the most influential. Even in defeat, Charles refused to give in, but tried to capitalize on the religious and political divisions between his enemies. During his stay on the Isle of Wight in 1647-48, the king managed to conclude a peace treaty with the Scots and to lead the royalist mood and discontent with Parliament into a series of armed uprisings throughout England in the spring and summer of 1648.

Although most wars ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648,[1][2] religious conflicts in Europe took place at least until the 1710s. [7] These include the Savoy-Vaude Wars (1655-1690)[2][7], the Nine Years` War (1688-1697, including the Glorious Revolution and Wilhelmina`s War in Ireland)[2], and the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714). [2] Whether these should be included in European religious wars depends on how one defines a “religious war” and whether these wars are considered “European” (i.e. . B more international than national). With the help of the Scots, Parliament won at Marston Moor (2 July 1644) and reached York and much of northern England.[11] Oliver Cromwell`s behavior in this fight proved crucial and demonstrated his leadership potential. In 1645, Parliament passed the Ordinance on Self-Denial, by which all members of both houses of Parliament established their orders, allowing the reorganization of its main forces into the New Model Army. In 1646, Charles was forced to surrender to the Scots and parliamentary forces controlled England.

Charles was executed in 1649 and the monarchy was not restored until 1660. Even then, religious conflicts continued during and after the Glorious Revolution. Many of the British North American colonies that eventually formed the United States of America were colonized in the seventeenth century by men and women who, in the face of European persecution, refused to passionately compromise religious beliefs and fled Europe. The colonies of New England, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland were conceived and established “as plantations of religion.” Some settlers who came to these areas came for secular reasons — “to catch fish,” as one New England resident put it — but the vast majority left Europe to worship God as they saw fit. They enthusiastically supported their leaders` efforts to create “a city on a hill” or a “sacred experience” whose success would prove that God`s plan for His churches in the American desert could be successfully realized. Even colonies like Virginia, which were planned as commercial enterprises, were run by entrepreneurs who considered themselves “militant Protestants” and worked diligently to promote the prosperity of the Church. In England, James` insistence on religious tolerance brought him into conflict with Parliament and the Anglican establishment. Fearing that James would want to destroy Protestantism, a group of bishops and parliamentarians asked William of Orange, a Dutch Protestant governor and James` son-in-law, to invade the country in 1688. When the king fled in France in December, parliament invited William and Mary to ascend the throne, and American settlers declared allegiance to the new monarchs. They did so in part to maintain order in their respective colonies.

As one Virginia official explained, if there was “no king in England, there was no government here.” A declaration of loyalty was therefore a means of stability. The Knights` Uprising of 1522 was an uprising of a number of German Protestant and religious humanist knights led by Franz von Sickingen against the Roman Catholic Church and the Holy Roman Emperor. It was also called the “Rebellion of the Poor Barons”. The uprising was short-lived, but was intended to inspire the bloody German Peasants` War of 1524-1526. In December 1560, Francis II died and Catherine de Medici became regent for her young son Charles IX. Although she was a Roman Catholic, she was willing to deal positively with the Huguenot house of Bourbon. He therefore supported religious tolerance in the form of the Edict of Saint-Germain (January 1562), which allowed Huguenots to pray publicly outside the cities and privately inside the cities. On March 1, however, a faction of supporters of the Guise family attacked an illegal Calvinist service at Wassy-sur-Blaise in Champagne. When hostilities broke out, the edict was lifted. An authority estimates the losses of the France against Austria at 80,000 dead or wounded and against Spain (including the years 1648-1659, in Westphalia) at 300,000 dead or disabled. [26] Sweden and Finland lost 110,000 deaths from all causes, according to one calculation. [26] Another 400,000 Germans, Britons and other nationalities died in the service of Sweden.

[26] Some members of the League continued to fight, but enough Catholics were convinced of the king`s conversion to increasingly isolate the hardliners. The Spaniards withdrew from France under the conditions of the Peace of Vervins. Henry was faced with the task of rebuilding a broken and impoverished kingdom and reunifying the France under one authority. The wars ended in 1598 when Henry IV promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which granted Protestants a certain degree of religious tolerance. More importantly, the settlers declared themselves for William and Mary because they believed that their rise marked the rejection of absolutism and confirmed the central importance of Protestantism in English life. The settlers joined the revolution by overthrowing the Dominion government, returning the provinces to their former status, and ousting the Catholic-dominated government of Maryland. They launched several attacks on French Canada as part of the “King William War” and welcomed the adoption of a Bill of Rights by Parliament in 1689, which restricted the power of the monarchy and cemented Protestantism in England. .